Contents

THE ARUSHA MANIFESTO

 Over fifty years ago     the  first President of the United     Republic of Tanzania, the     late Mwalimu Julius K. Nyerere,     recognized the integral part wildlife plays     in this  country. In September 1961 at a symposium on the Conservation of Nature and     Natural Resources, he  gave a speech that laid the     foundation for conservation  in post-independent     Tanzania. The extract of  that speech has become known     as the Arusha Manifesto.

The survival of our wildlife is a matter of  grave concern to all of us in Africa. These wild creatures amid the wild places they inhabit are not only important as a source of wonder and inspiration but are an integral part of our natural resources and our future livelihood and well being.

In accepting the trusteeship of our wildlife, we solemnly  declare that we will do  everything in our power to make sure  that our children’s  grandchildren will be able to enjoy this rich and precious inheritance.

The conservation of wildlife and wild places calls for specialist knowledge, trained manpower, and money and we look to other nations to co-operate with us in this important task - the success or failure of which not only affects the continent of Africa but the rest of the world as well.” 

Giraffe in the sunset

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ESTABLISHMENT

The  Tanganyika National Parks Ordinance CAP [412] of 1959 established the  organization now known as Tanzania National Parks (TANAPA), and Serengeti  became the first National Park. Currently TANAPA is  governed by the National Parks Ordinance Chapter 282 of the 2002 revised  edition of the Laws of the United Republic of Tanzania. Conservation in  Tanzania is governed by the Wildlife Conservation Act of 1974, which allows the  Government to establish protected areas and outlines how these are to be  organized and managed. National Parks represent the highest level of resource  protection that can be provided. By 2014, TANAPA had  grown to 16 national parks, covering approximately 57,024 square kilometres as  follows:

S/N

Name

Area (km2)

1.

Ruaha National Park

20,300

2.

Serengeti National Park

14,763

3.

Katavi National Park

 4,471

4.

Mkomazi National Park

3,245

5.

Mikumi National Park

3,230

6.

Tarangire National Park

2,600

7.

Udzungwa Mountains National Park

1,900

8.

Kilimanjaro National Park

1,668

9.

Mahale Mountains National Park

1,618

10.

Saadani National Park

1,100

11.

Arusha National Park

      552

12.

Rubondo Island National Park

     457

13.

Kitulo National Park

     413

14.

Lake Manyara National Park

     648

15.

Gombe National Park

      56

16.

Saanane National Park

       2.8

 

 TOTAL

 57,023.8

Conservation of eco-systems and tourism development in all areas designated as  national parks is the core business of the organisation.
      Nature-based or wildlife tourism is the main source of income that is ploughed back  for management, regulation and fulfilment of all organisational mandates in the  national parks.                                

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Principal activities

The primary role of Tanzania National Parks  is conservation. The 16 national parks, many of which form the core of a much  larger protected ecosystem, have been set aside to preserve the country’s rich  natural heritage and to provide secure breeding grounds where its fauna and  flora can thrive, safe from the conflicting interests of a growing human  population.

TANAPA is  particularly charged with functions of:

  • Protection of  natural resources, park facilities and tourists visiting the  parks;
  • Park management  and development;
  • Ecological and  wildlife health monitoring;
  • Tourism  development ; and
  • Community  involvement in conservation efforts.

VISION               Sustainable  Conservation and Tourism Excellence

MISSION           Sustainable Conservation for  Development

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MANDATE

          To manage and  regulate the use of areas designated as National Parks by such means and  measures to preserve the country’s heritage, encompassing natural and cultural  resources, both tangible and intangible resource values, including the fauna  and flora, wildlife habitat, natural processes, wilderness quality and scenery  therein and to provide for human benefit and enjoyment of the same in such  manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for future generations.

REGISTERED OFFICE &  ORGANIZATION HEADQUARTERS

Mwalimu  J.K. Nyerere Conservation Centre,   Burka  Estate, Dodoma Road,   P.O.  Box 3134, Arusha.   Telephone:  +255 27 2503471/2501930   Fax:         +255  27 2508216   Email: dg@tanzaniaparks.com                info@tanzaniaparks.com   Website: www.tanzaniaparks.com

PARENT MINISTRY

Ministry  of Natural Resources & Tourism,   P.O. Box 9372, Dar es Salaam. Tel:        +255  22 2864230                   +255 22 2861870 / 74 Fax:        +255 22 2864234 Email:  ps@mnrt.go.tz Websitewww.mnrt.go.tz

AUDITORS

CONTROLLER AND AUDITOR GENERAL   Office  of the Controller and Auditor General,   The  National Audit Office, Samora/Ohio Street,   P.O.  Box  9080, Dar es Salaam.   Telephone:  +255 22 211 5157   Facsimile:  +255 22   211 7527   Email:    ocag@nao.go.tz   Website: www.nao.go.tz

BANKERS

  CRDB  (T) Ltd   National  Bank of Commerce Ltd   National  Microfinance Bank Ltd   Exim  Bank (T) Ltd

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Governing  Instruments

Being a parastatal organization, TANAPA is  governed by a number of instruments including the National Parks Act, Chapter  282 of the 2002 (Revised Edition) and the Wildlife Conservation Act No. 5 of  2009. Others are the National Policies for National Parks in Tanzania (reviewed  in 2013), the five year Corporate Strategic Plan (CSP), parks’ specific General  Management Plans (GMPs), the Development and Lease Agreement Procedures (DALP),  as well as other relevant national laws and policies.

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Protection  of Park Resources, Facilities and Visitors

It is the responsibility of TANAPA to  ensure security and safety of visitors, park inhabitants, wildlife and park  infrastructures. Although security is the responsibility of every park  inhabitant, the Organization has rangers who are directly responsible for this.           To ensure that rangers are equipped with  the right skills to execute their duties, different kinds of training are  conducted and equipment procured to ease their tasks. Training focuses on  wildlife protection, strategic field patrol methods, intelligence gathering  operations and use of modern intelligence and security equipment.

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Ecosystem  Health Monitoring and Management

HippoThe national parks are endowed with rich  and diverse habitats and ecosystems which support diverse wildlife populations.  Regular monitoring of these systems is done in order to have an early warning  of future scenarios. Weather parameters are monitored in all the parks  throughout the year. Wildlife censuses are carried out in the parks regularly  to establish population sizes, trends and distribution.           Regular environmental audits are conducted  for visitors’ facilities and recommendations suggested to rectify the anomalies  observedl  All development projects  undertaken in the parks are subject to Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)  studies.           Wildlife health in all the national parks  is closely monitored. Inventory, mapping and eradication of invasive exotic  species is conducted in affected parks. Early burning is conducted to mitigate  the impact of dry season hot fires and to preserve forage for herbivores for  the dry season. This is achieved through the mosaic of burned and unburned  patches created by the early burning fires.     Wildlife related research in the national  parks is encouraged in collaboration with the Tanzania Wildlife Research  Institute (TAWIRI).

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Community  Support and Conservation Education

Beach hutDifferent approaches are adopted to provide  conservation education to various conservation stakeholders.           The Organization extends financial support  to 577 villages bordering national parks for implementation of community  development projects through the program of Support for Community Initiated  Projects (SCIP). These projects focus on education, health, transportation and  water supply.     The organization is conducting a  feasibility study to adopt a TANAPA Income Generating Projects (TIGPs) as a  complement to SCIP where Community Conservation Banks (COCOBA) and Village  Community Banks (VICOBA) will be introduced. The aim is to effectively contribute  to poverty alleviation for the communities living around the national parks,  while gaining their support for conservation.

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Contribution  to Conservation Collaborators

          The Organization appreciates the role  played by sister institutions in the Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism  and others in helping it to achieve its mandate. In reciprocation of the good  spirit and efforts, TANAPA extends required support to such institutions as the  College of African of Wildlife Management, Mweka, Pasiansi Wildlife Training  College, TAWIRI and Tanzania Tourist Board (TTB).

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Tourism Development and Promotion

WaterfallThe  Organization continues to embrace tourism as its main source of revenue for its  operations. For that reason, TANAPA continues to ensure that more tourism products  and activities are developed and promoted to  diversify the tourism experience in the parks. Analysis indicates that newly  developed tourist attractions have a significant annual average growth in  popularity, park value and visitor experience and hence visitor satisfaction.

As one of the  marketing strategies the Organization in collaboration with other stakeholders  continues to aggressively promote the country’s tourist attractions both  locally and internationally.

In order to promote domestic tourism,  TANAPA continues to build affordable accommodation facilities in the parks and  encourages the private sector to invest in the provision of logistic services  targeting the local market.

Improvement of  tourist facilities in the parks and their surroundings is emphasized too.

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Tourism Performance

Tented CampAverage annual  growth of tourist numbers for the past five years i.e. from 2008/2009 to  2012/2013 was 55,712 which is 8.1 %.  Annual  revenue growth for the same period was TZS 12.11 billion, which is 10.9 %. This  has been made possible through efforts made by the Organization to market the  unique attractions the country is endowed within its national parks as well as  ever improving customer services offered by TANAPA employees and other  stakeholders in the hospitality industry.

In 2012/2013,  the number of tourists recorded in our National Parks was 901,892, of which  537,675 were foreign tourists and 364,217 were locals.

Likewise,  revenue generated was TZS 124.806 billion in the year 2012/2013 which is an  increase of 0.04% compared to the previous year’s revenue which was TZS 124.758  billion. As it has been in many past years, Kilimanjaro and Serengeti National  Parks continue to generate a surplus while Arusha, Tarangire and Lake Manyara  National Parks generated revenue sufficient to break even. Efforts are being  made to ensure that Arusha, Tarangire and Lake Manyara National Parks generate  surplus revenue and the “dependant” national parks (the remaining eleven parks)  at least break even and thus get away from dependency syndrome.  

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Parks arrivals highlights

Table : Number of tourist arrivals to parks for    the year 2012/2013

S/N

PARKS

FOREIGN

DOMESTIC

TOTAL

1

 ARUSHA

33106

33702

66808

2

 GOMBE

1094

760

1854

3

 KATAVI

1512

1623

3135

4

 KILIMANJARO 

54584

3876

58460

5

 KITULO 

117

292

409

6

 LAKE MANYARA

126124

52349

178473

7

 MAHALE MOUNTAINS

1032

42

1074

8

 MIKUMI

20308

21358

41666

9

 MKOMAZI

597

990

1587

10

 RUAHA

12963

8304

21267

11

 RUBONDO ISLAND

492

256

748

12

 SAADANI  

4185

11230

15415

13

 SERENGETI

175356

160821

336177

14

 TARANGIRE

102140

59652

161792

15

 UDZUNGWA  MOUNTAINS

3878

3871

7749

16 

 SAANANE

187

5091

5278

 

 TOTAL

537,675

364,217

901,892

Table : Five year visitors’ statistics trend 2008/2009 - 2012/2013
     

S/N

YEAR

TOTAL NUMBER OF VISITORS

1

2008-2009

736,829

2

2009-2010

679,006

3

2010-2011

682,218

4

2011-2012

942,664

5

2012 – 2013

901,892

 VISITORS STATISTICS FIVE YEARS 2008/2009 –  2012/2013

 

fishermanDespite slight decline in number of tourists  as well as insignificant increase in revenue, the Organization continues to  meet its objectives.           To improve tourism activities in the parks,  TANAPA continues to identify and develop tourism products in several parks such  as: a VIP route to scale Mount Kilimanjaro, erection of hideouts along the bank  of the Mara River in Serengeti National Park for visitors’ close view  experience of the wildebeest migration crossing the river, boardwalk ways and  hippo pool view point in Lake Manyara and enhancing water tourism activities in  Saadani, Mahale Mountains, Gombe, Saanane and Rubondo Island National Parks.  These newly developed tourism products are expected to diversify tourism  activities and hence influence visitors to spend more days in the national parks.  Other tourism activities underway are canopy walkways in Lake Manyara, boat  excursions in Saanane and Saadani, paragliding in mountainous parks,  intensifying walking and night game drives in all parks.  

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OPERATIONAL CHALLENGES

Economic  crisis

Carrying out our Mandate has been done to a  satisfactory level despite the prevailing challenges economically and socially.  The economic crisis in the Euro Zone and the  safety instability in the neighboring countries greatly impacted on the number  of foreign visitors from whom TANAPA largely receives its income.  Visitors from abroad decreased by 8.2% from  581,620 in the previous year to 537,675 in the year 2012/2013.  Ordinarily, the visitors’ level would have  indicated a 5% increase as per the expected growth trend.

Unexpected  events

There have been unexpected events of floods  resulting from heavy rains which cause severe and devastating impact on roads  infrastructure. This necessitates major rehabilitation of damaged bridges,  roads and trails in affected areas notable of which were in Lake Manyara,  Tarangire, Ruaha, Saadani and Serengeti National Parks. These affect park  accessibility and operations.

Conservation  costs

Conservation involves costly tasks and must  be done regardless whether or not the areas being conserved generate income.

TANAPA has been managing a growing number  of national parks for the past 54 years. In fulfilling this endeavor, it has  endured several challenges some of which emanate from outside the parks. Some  of the challenges are too complex or broad in scope for TANAPA alone to handle.  This report provides an overview of the major challenges endured in the review  period.

Livestock  grazing in the parks

Livestock grazing is a growing conservation  challenge in the parks.  Wildlife and livestock  have traditionally co-existed in pastoral systems where optimal stocks combined  with rotational grazing have been practiced - such as in the Maasai pastoral  communities. However, the rapid human and livestock populations increase  adjacent to the parks coupled with technological advances in agriculture has  destroyed traditional community pasturelands.

Consequently, there is an acute shortage of  grazing lands amid hiking livestock populations, farming land, settlements and  uncertain climatic conditions. These factors have forced the local pastoral  communities to repeatedly illegally enter the parks in search of water, pasture  and even salt licks for their livestock.

The impacts of livestock incursions into  the parks are multiple and variable in nature and scope. Overgrazing can  rapidly deteriorate the grazing pasture for wildlife and even lead to declines  of wildlife. Livestock can also exchange diseases with wildlife such as  Anthrax, Malignant Catarrhal Fever (MCF), Rabies and Canine Distemper which may  quickly rise to epidemic proportions killing wildlife in masses.

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Tourism  Development adjacent National Parks

GiraffesOf recent, there has been an increase in  the number of accommodation facilities such as tented camps, lodges and  campsites as well as tourism activities adjacent to the national parks. These  developments can be viewed in two ways. On one hand, local communities benefit  economically hence are expected to support the conservation efforts of TANAPA.  However, on the other hand, these developments seem to be future competitors of  TANAPA. These developments have a direct impact on the carrying capacity of  respective parks and hence visitor experience.

There is also a possibility of compromising  the quality of goods and services provided by these facilities that may in turn  affect visitation and number of tourist arrivals in the country.

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Mining in the National  Parks

There are two national parks currently  facing challenges caused by mining; these are Lake Manyara and Saadani. In the  former, alexandrite and emerald gemstones are being mined on a small scale  basis within Marang’ Forest in Lake Manyara National Park.

On the other hand, salt mining has been  conducted in Saadani since 1992 when it was still a Game Reserve. These  activities pose significant threat to conservation and management of the parks,  including pollution due to unregulated wastes disposal, introduction of  invasive plant species, poaching, destruction of wildlife migratory routes and  others.  

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Poaching

ForestPoaching has continued to be the major  challenge facing national  parks. In particular, the recent poaching wave involving killing elephants in  almost all national parks.

For decades, most of the communities living  adjacent to the national parks have depended on the parks to cater for bush  meat and other subsistence needs like firewood, grass and pasture. Due to  population increase, demand for bush meat has also increased to cater for both  subsistence and commercial needs and thus poached products are traded both  locally and internationally.

In addressing this problem of escalated  poaching, TANAPA has invariably increased and diversified anti-poaching  strategies over the years, including increasing budgetary allocations,  increasing the number of rangers and strengthening intelligence gathering and  prosecution activities. Training in these areas has also been stepped up.

Innovative intervention approaches  banking on TANAPA’s experiences are pursued to combat the poaching menace.  These approaches must attract both stakeholders’ support and political will.

This simply means that TANAPA cannot  work in isolation. It is our duty to seek every possible support in order to  ensure that the precious natural resources that we manage are conserved for the  enjoyment and prosperity of the present and future generations, failure of  which will not only impact Tanzania, but the entire world.